1. Allegations of Misconduct

NKR takes allegations of misconduct seriously during all processes of publication. Once allegation is submitted by a whistleblower, the editor in chief and the managing editor will be alerted and all information regarding the case will be shared among them so that they can execute an investigation effectively. Sharing of information will allow the editors to compare different versions of the work, collaborate in investigating the case, and compare the explanations by the author.


2. Authorship and Contributorship 

In order to give credit to all deserving authors and contributors, NKR follows the guidance from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) which states that: “Authorship credit should be based only on: (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published. Conditions (1), (2), and (3) must all be met. Acquisition of funding, the collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship.”


3. Complaints and Appeals 

All complaints against the journal, its staff, editorial board or publisher will be forwarded to the editor in chief, the managing editor, and the book review editor. Once forwarded, all information regarding the complaint will be shared among them, and an investigation will be executed if need be. To avoid confusion of the terms between the authors and the journal and to ensure consent for publishing, NKR requires the authors sign publication consent forms which can be found on the website. 


4. Conflicts of Interest/ Competing Interests

NKR acknowledges that a conflict of interest may arise during any process of publication including research, peer review, and decision making. We identify with PLOS journals’ interpreted conflict of interest which states, “A competing interest is anything that interferes with, or could reasonably be perceived as interfering with, the full and objective presentation, peer review, editorial decision-making, or publication of research or non-research articles submitted to a journal. Competing interests can be financial or non- financial, professional, or personal. Competing interests can arise in relationship to an organization or another person.”


If a conflict of interest arises among authors, reviewers, editors, journals and publishers, it will be appropriately managed by the editor in chief and the managing editor. When undisclosed conflict of interest is suspected, the editor in chief and managing editor will contact the authors and express their concern. The authors then will supply relevant details and if the conflict of interest is found so serious as to affect the data through fabrication or flaws, the editor will retract the article. 


5. Data and Reproducibility

To improve transparency and reproducibility of research, NKR will make all data gathered and utilized during the publication of the article available on the journal. If a self-led research is conducted and an article addressing it is published, all information of the research will be made available. 


6. Ethical Oversight

To avoid confusion of the terms between the authors and the journal and to ensure consent for publishing, NKR requires the authors sign publication agreement forms which can be found on the website. 

If an ethical problem is suspected, the authors will be required to supply relevant details through which the issue will be investigated. Should concerns arise regarding the ethics to the submitted article such as lack of participant consent or ethical violations, concerns will be forwarded to the author’s employer or persons responsible for the research.


7. Intellectual Property

As noted in the publication agreement for North Korean Review, if an Author submits an article to the journal, the Author grants the Publisher, McFarland & Company, Inc., the right to publish the article in print and electronic edition of NKR, and to grant permission for subsidiary rights to the article. Further, NKR will show a copyright for the entire issue in the Publisher’s name for the protection of the Author and Publisher. Should the Author desire to do so, the Author will be responsible for registering the article’s copyright with the Copyright Office. 


NKR acknowledges that there are different types of plagiarism depending on the extent, content, and intention. If there are cases of major plagiarism where large parts of an article are copied without attributing the original author, it will be retracted.  NKR expects that all articles submitted by authors are their own original research, have not been published elsewhere, and takes the position that, by submitting an article, the author has understood and abided by that policy.


8. Journal Management

North Korean Review is an academic journal published biannually by McFarland with editorial offices at the Yonsei Institute for North Korean Studies. It is the first English language journal to focus exclusively on North Korean Studies. Revenue is generated through its publications as annual rates are $120 USD for institutions and $40 USD for individuals. For an international institution or individual, an additional $20 is incurred for postage. 


In order to manage the journal efficiently and to better contact the subscribers, North Korean Review has an online website and maintains accounts on social media platforms such as Facebook, twitter, linkedIn, Instagram and the like.  The journal is available through online journal indexing services such as Jstor and Proquest  which allow readers to access a digital extension of the printed version. Contact information or further information about the editorial and publication staff or the journal itself can be found on the NKR website. 


Editorial board members are selected for 3 year terms based on outstanding contribution to the field.  Board members are expected to contribute to the journal in terms of research, peer review, and serve an advisory role for ensuring the continued development of North Korean Review and North Korean Studies scholarship in general.  The 3 year term may be extended based on how involved and active a role the board member has taken in NKR.


9. Peer Review Processes

North Korean Review acknowledges that the peer review plays an integral role in upholding a scholarly record and maintains that journals must provide transparent policies for peer review to be read by the subscribers and the readers. 


All manuscripts are subjected to a double blind peer review performed by at least 2 outside reviewers based on North Korean Review’s standards and careful consideration is given to 1. Research Question and Methodology, 2. Originality and Academic Contribution, 3.  Structure and Logic of the Argument, 4. Appropriateness of Related Sources and Materials, and 5. Completeness of the Manuscript.


North Korean Review’s review regulations divides the peer review decision into three categories; Publish, Revise, and Reject.  Criteria for each of these categories is as seen below.


  1. Publish: A manuscript that fulfills all of the five review standards as listed above.  Such a manuscript that is found during the reading to be in need of only minor rewordings or revisions.

  2. Revise: A manuscript that fails to satisfy one of the five standards and requires partial or general revision.  Should this manuscript, upon editing, address these shortcomings, then it shall be publishable.

  3. Reject: A manuscript that fails to meet most of the journal’s publication standards and the issues may not be addressed without a complete rewriting of the manuscript


Reviewers are expected to give their scholarly opinion on the manuscript by filling out the NKR peer review form that details the above guidelines. The review process typically takes between 6 weeks and 3 months.


10. Post-publication Discussions and Corrections

Post publication debates are available for the North Korean Review through letters to the editor. The phone number, fax address, and emails for the editors are available on the ‘Contact Us’ page on the online website. Retracting the publication will be considered if there is clear manifestation of unreliable information due to misconduct, plagiarism, and unethical research. Retractions will be made on the publication both offline and online. The article in question will be clearly identified and be published as soon as possible to minimize the effects of unreliable information.

NKR strives to conform to the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors as laid out by the Committee on Publication Ethics.  All submissions undergo double blind peer review by at least two outside reviewers.  The peer review process takes between six weeks and three months to complete.  Authors should ensure any submission has not been previously published in other publications.

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